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Horsefly Control: Effective Strategies for Horse Owners

Published on: July 4, 2024

By: Miles HenryFact Checked

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Horseflies are more than just a nuisance; they pose significant challenges for horse owners. These persistent pests can cause distress to horses, lead to health issues, and disrupt stable environments. This article aims to provide horse owners with comprehensive information on horsefly control, covering their lifecycle, their impact on horses, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment.

Horseflies on a horse's face, illustrating the need for effective horsefly control.
Horseflies on a horse’s face.

What are Horseflies?

Horseflies are large, fast-flying insects known for their painful bites and relentless pursuit of blood meals. These pests are typically about 1 to 1.25 inches long, with robust bodies and prominent, brightly colored eyes. Their wings are usually clear or slightly tinted, and they have strong, blade-like mouthparts designed to slice through skin. Unlike other flies, horseflies are known for their aggressive behavior, making them particularly troublesome for horses and their owners.

Common Species Affecting Horses

Several species of horseflies are known to affect horses, each with its own characteristics and behaviors:

  1. Tabanus spp.: These are the most common and widespread species. They are large, with striped or solid bodies, and their bites can cause significant discomfort and swelling.
  2. Chrysops spp. (Deer Flies): Smaller than Tabanus, deer flies are easily recognized by their banded wings and spotted bodies. They are active during the day and are particularly attracted to moving objects and dark colors.
  3. Haematopota spp.: Known as “cleg flies” or “common horseflies,” these have a mottled gray appearance with patterned wings. They prefer wooded areas and are active during overcast weather.

Understanding the types of horseflies that may affect your horses is the first step in horsefly control. Each species has unique habits and preferences, which can help you effectively tailor your prevention and treatment strategies.

A horse standing in a clean, well-maintained barn, demonstrating effective horsefly prevention practices.
Horse in a well-maintained barn for horsefly prevention.

The Horsefly Lifecycle: Key to Effective Control

Horseflies undergo a complete metamorphosis with four distinct stages:

  1. Eggs: Female horseflies lay their eggs on vegetation near water sources. Each cluster can contain up to 1,000 eggs, which hatch in 5-7 days.
  2. Larvae: After hatching, the larvae drop into the water or moist soil. They feed on organic matter and small organisms for several months, going through multiple molts.
  3. Pupae: The larval stage ends when they pupate in dry soil. This stage lasts a few weeks, during which the larvae transform into adults.
  4. Adults: Adult horseflies emerge from the pupae, ready to mate and feed. Females seek blood meals to develop their eggs, while males typically feed on nectar.

Seasonal Patterns and Peak Activity Times

Horseflies are most active during warm months, particularly in late spring and summer. They thrive in humid environments and are often found near water bodies such as lakes, ponds, and marshes. Peak activity times are during daylight hours, especially on warm, sunny days. Understanding these patterns can help horse owners take timely preventive measures for effective horsefly control.

Horses in a barn equipped with fans to help control horseflies and provide a comfortable environment.
Pictures of horses in a barn with fans. This helps with fly control.

How Horseflies Affect Horses

Horsefly bites are painful and can cause the following symptoms in horses:

  • Swelling and inflammation at the bite site
  • Restlessness and agitation
  • Frequent stomping and tail swishing
  • Skin irritation and potential allergic reactions

Health Risks and Complications of Horsefly Bites

While most horsefly bites are merely irritating, they can sometimes lead to more serious health issues:

  • Infections: Bites can become infected if not properly treated.
  • Allergic Reactions: Some horses may experience severe allergic reactions, leading to hives or difficulty breathing.
  • Disease Transmission: Horseflies can transmit equine infectious anemia (EIA) and other bloodborne diseases.
A horse wearing a fly mask to protect against horsefly bites and reduce discomfort.
Horse wearing a fly mask for protection against horseflies.

Horsefly Prevention and Protection Strategies

Stable Management Practices for Horsefly Control

  • Stable Management: Keep stables clean and dry to discourage horsefly breeding. Learn more about stable hygiene.
  • Turnout Timing: Avoid turning horses out during peak horsefly activity times.
  • Shelters: Provide shaded shelters or barns where horses can escape from horseflies.

Choosing Effective Repellents

  • Repellents: Use horsefly-specific sprays and spot-on treatments. Products containing permethrin or pyrethrin are particularly effective. Check out my article on homemade horsefly sprays.
  • Protective Gear: Fly masks, sheets, and leg wraps can provide a physical barrier against horsefly bites.

Environmental Management Tips for Controlling Horseflies

  • Water Management: Eliminate standing water around the stable area to reduce breeding sites.
  • Vegetation Control: Keep grass and weeds trimmed, especially near water sources.
  • Traps: Use horsefly traps to reduce the local population. Find the best traps here.

Personal Experiences and Tips

  • “Using fly sheets and masks has drastically reduced the number of bites my horses get during the summer.” – Sarah, horse owner from Florida.
  • “Regularly cleaning and drying the stable area has helped us keep the horsefly population in check.” – Mike, horse owner from Texas.

Maintaining a Horsefly-Free Stable: Best Practices

  • Implement a regular schedule for cleaning and water management.
  • Rotate the use of different repellents to prevent resistance.
A veterinarian treating a horse for horsefly bites, highlighting the importance of timely treatment.
Vet treating a horse for an allergic reaction to horsefly bites.

Treating Horsefly Bites: Immediate Steps and Remedies

Immediate Steps to Take After a Horsefly Bite

  • Clean the Bite: Wash the bite area with soap and water to prevent infection.
  • Apply a Cold Compress: Reduce swelling and discomfort with a cold compress.

Home Remedies and Treatments for Horsefly Bites

  • Anti-Inflammatory Creams: Apply over-the-counter creams to soothe irritation.
  • Herbal Remedies: Aloe vera gel or calendula ointment can provide relief.

When to Seek Veterinary Care

  • Persistent Swelling: If swelling doesn’t subside or worsens.
  • Signs of Infection: Redness, heat, or pus around the bite.
  • Allergic Reactions: Hives, difficulty breathing, or excessive itching.
Horsefly paper traps set up in a barn to control the horsefly population and protect horses.
Horsefly paper used for trapping flies in a barn.

Best Products and Tools for Horsefly Control

Top Recommended Sprays, Traps, and Products for Horsefly Control

  • Sprays: Farnam Endure Sweat-Resistant Fly Spray, Absorbine UltraShield EX.
  • Traps: Horse Pal Fly Trap, Bite-Lite H-Trap.
  • Spot-On Treatments: Equi-Spot Spot-On Fly Control.

Reviews of Popular Options

  • Farnam Endure Sweat-Resistant Fly Spray: Highly effective, long-lasting protection.
  • Horse Pal Fly Trap: Efficient in reducing fly population, easy to set up.
  • Equi-Spot Spot-On Fly Control: This convenient application provides lasting relief.
Bulk shavings used for stall bedding, stored at a distance from the barn to prevent horsefly breeding.
Bulk shavings for stall bedding, stored away from the barn.

Personal Experiences and Tips

I’m writing this article during the hot, humid month of June in South Louisiana. Battling horseflies is a daily routine and something we must be good at for the health and comfort of our horses. Here are some of my top tips:

  • Use Fly Sheets and Masks: Using fly sheets and masks has drastically reduced the number of bites my horses get during the summer.
  • Maintain Clean and Dry Stables: Regularly cleaning and drying the stable area has helped us keep the horsefly population in check.
  • Use Stall Fans: Installing stall fans can help keep flies from landing on horses by creating constant airflow.

Tips for Maintaining a Horsefly-Free Stable

  • Implement a Regular Cleaning Schedule: Consistently clean and manage water around the stable area to discourage horsefly breeding.
  • Store Used Horse Shavings Far Away from Your Barn: This helps reduce the places where horseflies can breed.
  • Rotate Repellents: Use different repellents periodically to prevent the flies from developing resistance.

FAQs on Horsefly Control

How can I prevent horseflies from biting my horse?

Using fly masks and sheets and applying repellent sprays regularly can help prevent horsefly bites. Additionally, installing stall fans to create airflow can keep flies from landing on horses.

What should I do if my horse has a severe reaction to a horsefly bite?

Seek veterinary care immediately if your horse shows signs of a severe allergic reaction, such as hives, difficulty breathing, or excessive itching.

When are horseflies most active?

Horseflies are most active during warm months, particularly in late spring and summer. They thrive in humid environments and are often found near water bodies such as lakes, ponds, and marshes. Peak activity times are during daylight hours, especially on warm, sunny days.

What are some effective repellents for horseflies?

Products containing permethrin or pyrethrin are particularly effective against horseflies. Horsefly-specific sprays and spot-on treatments can also provide protection. Regularly rotating different repellents can prevent the flies from developing resistance.

How can I manage the environment to reduce horsefly populations?

Eliminate standing water around the stable area, trim grass and weeds, and use horsefly traps to reduce the local population. Consistently clean and manage water around the stable to discourage horsefly breeding.

Can horseflies transmit diseases to horses?

Yes, horseflies can transmit diseases such as equine infectious anemia (EIA) and other bloodborne diseases. Taking preventive measures and monitoring your horse for any signs of illness is important.

A well-ventilated shedrow barn designed to provide a comfortable environment and reduce horsefly presence.
Well-ventilated shedrow barn for effective horsefly control.

Conclusion: Effective Horsefly Control Strategies

Understanding horseflies and their lifecycle is the first step toward effective management. Horsefly bites can cause significant discomfort and potential health risks for your horses. Therefore, prevention, protection, and timely treatment are crucial in managing these persistent pests.

Staying proactive in horsefly management ensures the well-being of your horses. By maintaining clean and dry stables, using effective repellents and protective gear, and implementing environmental management practices, you can create a safer and more comfortable environment for your horses. Additionally, utilizing personal experiences and tips from other horse owners can provide practical insights and proven strategies.

Remember, horsefly control is an ongoing process that requires vigilance and consistency. By following the tips and using the recommended products discussed in this article, you can significantly reduce the impact of horseflies on your horses.

Take action today: Visit for more detailed information, additional resources, and expert advice. Don’t forget to subscribe to our newsletter to stay updated on the latest horse care tips and strategies. Together, we can ensure our horses remain healthy, comfortable, and free from the distress caused by horseflies.

List of Authorities

American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP)

The Horse (A trusted resource for equine health care)

University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory

North Carolina State University, College of Veterinary Medicine